Guidelines for authors


Use of word processing software. It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used (.doc or .docx file). The text should be in single-column format and 12pt. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible.



Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible. Avoid capital letters.

Author names and affiliations

Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name.

A concise and factual abstract is required (maximum 300 words). The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. References should be avoided. Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.

Corresponding author

Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.

Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 5 keywords, using British or American spelling, but not a mixture of these, and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, "and", "of"). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible.

State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.

Subdivision - numbered sections

Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to 'the text'. Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line.


Results should be clear and concise. If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format. Results can be in same section with Discussions. Although, it is preferred to be a separated section


JPEG (or TIFF): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.

JPEG (or TIFF): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.

JPEG (or TIFF): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.

Please do not:

Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG);

these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;

Supply files that are too low in resolution;

Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Tables can be placed either next to the relevant text in the article, or on separate page(s) at the end. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Please, avoid using vertical rules.

This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.

The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.

Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).


Citation in text.

Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication. Do not reference in numerical order in text i.e. [1], [2] etc

Web references

As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.


Reference style

List: references should be arranged first alphabetically and then further sorted chronologically if necessary. More than one reference from the same author(s) in the same year must be identified by the letters 'a', 'b', 'c', etc., placed after the year of publication.

Examples: Reference to a journal publication:

Van der Geer, J., Hanraads, J.A.J., and Lupton, R.A., 2010. The art of writing a scientific article. Journal of Scientific Communications, 163: 51–59.

Geer, J., Hanraads, J.A., and Lupton, R.A., 2011. The art of writing a scientific article 2. Journal of Scientific Communications, 163(2): 60–69. 


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